Below are capitalization rules:

Do Not Capitalize
  • First letter of people’s names & places
  • First letter of cities, states, & countries
  • First letter in the first word of a sentence
  • Languages
  • Historical events (e.g. Age of Exploration)
  • Months & days of the week
  • Book titles
  • Pronoun “I”
  • Seasons
  • Animals
  • Important words
  • School subjects
  • Body parts
  • Objects

Below are common homophones and what they mean:

to, two, too
to - a preposition indicating direction or a position
two - a noun meaning the number 2
too - an adverb that means as well or also

there, their, they're
there - an adverb that indicates location or place
their - a possessive pronoun; it shows that something belongs to a group of people
they're - a contraction that means "they are"

your, you're
your - a possessive pronoun that shows that something belongs to you
you're - a contraction that means "you are"

its, it's
its - a possessive pronoun that shows that an item belongs to something
it's - a contraction that means "it is"

here, hear
here - an adverb that indicates location or place
hear - a verb that means that you can perceive sound (listen)

where, wear
where - an adverb that indicates direction
wear - a verb that means when you put something on your body

affect, effect
affect - a verb which means to have an influence on something
effect - a noun which means to bring about or cause

Below are the notes about avoiding fragments in your writing:

A sentence fragment does not express a complete thought and does not make a complete sentence.


When you are trying to figure out whether a sentence is complete, ask yourself 2 questions:

· WHO or WHAT is doing the action? (That is the subject.)

· WHAT is happening? (This is the predicate/verb.)

If you can answer BOTH of these questions, your sentence is complete and NOT a fragment!

If you CAN'T answer both of these questions, then your answer IS a fragment and you need to fix it by adding the missing part (the subject or the predicate).

Another common way that fragments are made is when you start a sentence using these words, but you don't finish the sentence:

  • because
  • after
  • since
  • that
  • until
  • before
  • even
  • though
  • if
  • while
  • even though
  • when
  • whether
  • while
  • which
  • unless

If you would like to begin your sentence with these words, you must follow it with a COMMA and write a complete sentence AFTER it.